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Apnea of prematurity is defined as respiratory pauses > 20 seconds or pauses < 20 seconds that are associated with bradycardia (< 80 beats/minute), central cyanosis, and/or oxygen saturation < 85% in neonates born at < 37 weeks gestation and with no underlying disorders causing apnea. The baby's levels of chemicals such as glucose or calcium are too high or too low. heart or blood vessel problems. the stimulation of reflexes that can trigger apnea such as with feeding tubes or suctioning, or when your baby's neck is very flexed. unstable temperature.
Anemia of prematureness (AOP) refers to a sort of anemia moving preterm infants with remittent hematocrit. AOP may be a normochromic, normocytic hypo proliferative anemia. the first mechanism of AOP may be a decrease in glycoprotein (EPO), a red vegetative cell protein. Blood sampling in deep trouble laboratory testing will simply take away enough blood to supply anemia. Obladen, Sachsen Eger and Stahnke (1987) studied sixty terribly low birth weight infants throughout the primary twenty-eight days of life. Infants were divided into three teams, cluster one (no ventilator support, twenty four ml/kg blood loss), cluster 2(minor vented support, sixty ml/kg blood loss), and cluster 3(ventilated support for metabolism distress syndrome, sixty seven ml/kg blood loss). Infants were checked for clinical symptoms and laboratory signs of anemia twenty four hours before and when the insertion. The study found that teams two and three United Nations agency had vital quantity of blood loss, showed poor weight gain, wanes and distended abdomen. These reactions are the foremost frequent symptoms of anemia in terribly low birth weight infants.
An atrial septal defect (ASD) is a hole in the wall (septum) between the two upper chambers of your heart (atria). The condition is present at birth (congenital). Small defects might be found by chance and never cause a problem. Some small atrial septal defects close during infancy or early childhood Treatments. In the past, atrial septal defect (ASD) closure required open-heart surgery through an incision in the chest using a heart-lung bypass machine. This procedure would require three to five days in the hospital for recovery. It is now possible to close ASDs without surgery.
An atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is a heart defect in which there are holes in the middle of the chambers of the right and left sides of the heart, and the valves that control the flow of blood in the middle of these chambers may not be formed correctly. Atrioventricular septal deficiency is a serious heart problem that usually causes heart-related indication. Unlike some heart defects, the problem does not slove with time and most children must undergo heart surgery. The good news is that this surgery is normally very successful and most children do very well. There are two general types of AVSD that can occur, depending on which structures are not formed correctly:
- Complete AVSD
- Partial or Incomplete AVSD
A hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a bright red discoloration that shows up at birth or in the first or second week of life. It looks like a buoyant. bump and is assemble up of extra blood vessels in the skin. A hemangioma can occur anywhere on the body, but most frequently appears on the face, scalp, chest or back. Infantile hemangiomas are made up of blood vessels that form inaccurately and multiply more than they should. These blood vessels receive signals to grow quickly early in a baby's life. Most adolescent hemangioma will appear at birth or within the first few weeks after birth.
Treatment options for hemangiomas
- Corticosteroid medication. Corticosteroids may be injected into a hemangioma to reduce its growth and to stop inflammation.
- Laser treatment. Laser treatment can be used to remove Hemangiomas on the top layers of the skin
- Medicated gel
- For hemangiomas on the organ
A brachial plexus injury (BPI), also known as brachial plexus lesion, is an injury to the brachial plexus, the network of nerves that conducts signals from the spinal cord to the shoulder, arm and hand. These nerves originate in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth cervical (C5–C8), and first thoracic (T1) spinal nerves, and innervate the muscles and skin of the chest, shoulder, arm and hand. Brachial plexus injuries can occur as a result of shoulder trauma, tumours, or inflammation. The rare Parsonage–Turner syndrome causes brachial plexus inflammation without obvious injury, but with nevertheless disabling symptoms. But in general, brachial plexus injury can be classified as either traumatic or obstetric. Obstetric injuries may occur from mechanical injury involving shoulder dystocia during difficult childbirth.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Signs and symptoms vary among people and over time. Often, symptoms include poor coordination, stiff muscles, weak muscles, and tremors. There may be problems with sensation, vision, hearing, swallowing, and speaking. Often, babies with cerebral palsy do not roll over, sit, crawl or walk as early as other children of their age. Other symptoms include seizures and problems with thinking or reasoning, which each occur in about one-third of people with CP. While symptoms may get more noticeable over the first few years of life, underlying problems do not worsen over time.
Charge syndrome is a disorder that affects many areas of the body. CHARGE is an abbreviation for several of the features common in the disorder: coloboma, heart defects, atresia choanae (also known as choanal atresia), growth retardation, genital abnormalities, and ear abnormalities. Children with Charge have been shown to have a 70% survival rate to five years of age.
Signs and symptoms of Charge syndrome
A slit or groove in one of the structures of the eye (coloboma of the eye), like the iris or retina, which causes vision loss.
Blocked nasal passages (choanal atresia)
Central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) problems.
Malformed ears, which can cause hearing loss.
A cleft palate is an opening or split in the roof of the mouth that occurs when the tissue doesn't fuse together during development in the womb. A cleft palate often includes a split (cleft) in the upper lip (cleft lip) but can occur without affecting the lip
General pediatrics is the part of medication that includes the medicinal consideration of babies, kids and young people given by the general pediatricians who have general therapeutic information of how medication influence distinctive formative development phases of the newborn children
• Congenital Heart Disease
• Exercise and sports Medicine
Clinical Pediatrics includes the use of learning of medicine for the advancement, maintenance and treatment of children’s Health additionally for aversion and analysis of a few diseases and disorder. Health Professionals of all
Neonatal and Perinatal Care alludes to the high-quality care of pregnant ladies, their babies, and their neonates. Both mother and her infant will approach the most suitable dimensions of consideration. The Maternal fetal prescription doctors, Pediatrics masters and Neonatologists progressed toward becoming piece of care team whenever the infant is in fetal condition. • Low Birth Weight and Preterm Infants • Prematurity • Labor and Delivery • Perinatal Transfusion Medicine
Neonatal and Adolescent medicine is the division of Neonatology which includes group of neonatologists which diagnose the critically ill newborn infants, give education on the severe conditions that may arise to the pediatricians, neonatologists, neonatal nurses, Neonatology Conferences, neonatal practitioners, regulate and organize research to give insights to the diseases and enhance the healthcare in the field of neonatology. • Medical and Legal Aspects of Respiratory Care
• Principles of Lung-Protective Ventilation
• Medical Malpractice
• Neonatal Neurointensive Care
Neonatal nephrology is concerned about kidney or urinary tract infections, bladder issues, or hypertension in the babies happening because of the progress from the aqueous condition of the mother's womb to dry land making difficulties to the neonate to manage the composition and volume of the extracellular fluid.
• Glomerular filtration rate
• Serum creatinine
• Tubular function
• Acid excretion
Pediatric Oncology is a part of medication that bargains with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of cancer in youngsters. The most widely recognized malignant growths in youngsters are leukemia, brain tumors and lymphomas. Familial and hereditary components, exogenous elements like pre-birth exposure to tobacco, X-beams, or certain prescriptions are recognized as causes in youth cancer cases.
Pediatric neurology manages the diagnosis and treatment of all diseases and conditions associated with the central and peripheral nervous system in neonates, newborn children, youngsters and teenagers. Abdominal Migraine Absence Seizure Agenesis of Corpus Callosum Ataxia Brain Abscess
Childhood cancer is cancer in a child. In the United States, an arbitrarily adopted standard of the ages used are 0–14 years inclusive, that is, up to 14 years 11.9 months of age. However, the definition of childhood cancer sometimes includes adolescents between 15–19 years old. Pediatric oncology is the branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in children.
Neonatal jaundice is a yellowish discoloration of the white part of the eyes and skin in a newborn baby due to high bilirubin levels. Other symptoms may include excess sleepiness or poor feeding. Complications may include seizures, cerebral palsy, or kernicterus. Excess bilirubin (hyperbilirubinemia) is the main cause of jaundice. Bilirubin, which is responsible for the yellow color of jaundice, is a normal part of the pigment released from the breakdown of "used" red blood cells. In a newborn, higher bilirubin is normal due to the stress of birth. Normal indirect bilirubin would be under 5.2 mg/dL within the first 24 hours of birth. But many newborns have some kind of jaundice and bilirubin levels that rise above 5 mg/dL within the first few days after birth.
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) is more common in premature babies born six weeks or more before their due dates. It usually develops within the first 24 hours after birth. Symptoms include rapid, shallow breathing and a sharp, pulling-in of the chest below and between the ribs with each breath. Treatment includes medication to keep the lungs open, breathing support and oxygen therapy. RDS is caused by the baby not having enough surfactant in the lungs. Surfactant is a liquid made in the lungs at about 26 weeks of pregnancy. As the fetus grows, the lungs make more surfactant. Surfactant coats the tiny air sacs in the lungs and helps to keep them from collapsing.
Pediatric Primary care is the everyday healthcare services given by a health care provider supplier to neonates, babies and kids. This medicinal services supplier goes about as the principal contact individual for preceding with consideration to patients, and directions other pro consideration the patient may require.
Gynecology is the part of medication managing the capacities and ailments particular to women and girls, particularly those influencing the reproductive system. Infertility can be characterized as the inability to conceive within a year. Fertility and Reproductive Health Center Fibroid Treatment Program Gynecologic Oncology
Child and adolescent mental health are said to be the ability to achieve and keep up the ideal psychological working of the prosperity. It is identified with the level reached and ability accomplished in the social and mental functioning. 10-20 % of the adolescent | infant world is suffering with mental disorder. It is necessary to address this problem, to strengthen the infants or a children’s menta health. Neonatologists and Pediatrician carry a greater responsibility towards shaping the child’s mental health.
Neonatal syndrome is the study of various diseases and disorders occurring in New born infants and toddlers. During the infant time frame, the facial highlights and nearness of innate heart imperfection are the discoveries that lead regularly to the diagnosis following a frequently unforeseen result after a long pregnancy. Prematurity Respiratory dysfunction birth trauma congenital malformations
A pregnancy that has advanced with no issues can in any case have an approach to complications during delivery. An infant conceived before 37 weeks is viewed as a premature infant and is in danger of numerous difficulties of prematurity, for example, juvenile lungs, respiratory pain, and stomach related issues. Gestational diabetes Preeclampsia Preterm labor Miscarriage